Hey, guys,

On Thursday, we discussed creating borders within the wiki so it is easier to follow. I have separated them by the names and links. Now, every person has their own spot where they can put the links for the project. But, of course, we are free to share all the information and use the same sources. If I made any mistakes, I apologize. I also did not know who wrote the Money and Politics part, so please put it wherever your name is. If anyone does not like the format, you are, of course, free to change it. I thought this formal would be easy for us, but that is my opinion. For those who were not here, we also discussed all of us doing the citations for every link we put on here. This will help us later on when we are writing our own papers. - Alena Lulchak

Brenda Capistran: Legal inequality

The US Supreme Court bar--lawyers who make public policy
Too big to fail, too big to prosecute? Big banks and the US Attorney's office
What do we know about the use discretion by police officers?
How do we explain the recent highly-publicized shootings of young men by police?
What are the causes and consequences of the USA being the world's largest jailer?

The New Face of Legal Inequality: Noncitizens and the Long-Term Trends in Sentencing Disparities across U.S. District Courts, 1992–2009

Sentencing disparities are bigger between Hispanics and whites than between blacks and whites. The reason being that non citizens are found to
get harsher punishments than citizens. The result is that Hispanics are now the most disadvantaged group within the U.S court system.

This is study conducted in Osceola County in Florida in regards to how the economic and social differences of Hispanics (particularly Puerto Ricans)
affects their participation in the political/legal process. The majority of Hispanics hold working class jobs instead of jobs in the legal system. This article even
discusses how their economic and social characteristics prevents them from registering to vote. The low representation of the Hispanic population in political positions
affects the laws that are passed and the enforcement of the laws. This relates back to my previous article in which it says that Hispanics are the most disadvantage group within the U.S. This also connects economic and social inequality to a resulting political inequality which then creates more economic inequality, almost like a vicious cycle.

This article is by Antonio Sisneros and it talks about the increasing number of Hispanics in the United States but that in many Public areas they are still highly unrepresented.
Government jobs being one of the unrepresented areas.

This article is by Rodney E. Hero and Caroline J. Tolbert and it talks about the anticipated increase in Hispanic Congressional representation due to the increase in the number
of Hispanics in the United States. Some of the results say that Latino representatives have varied voting patterns, and that the Latino constituents have little impact on the way the representatives vote.


Sam Strader: How is political inequality impacted by redistricting (of congressional districts) and/or redistricting of aldermanic wards?

Electoral rules

Gerrymandering the House of Representatives and state legislatures
Redistricting plans -- racial gerrymandering is illegal, but gerrymandering for partisan advantage is not.
Democrats get more votes than Republicans in 2014 and lose big
The Senate and the Electoral College: What are the impacts on political equality?
Proposals to change the way we elect the president for 2016
Ballot access laws, also known as voter suppression laws
CRIMINALIZING VOTER SUPPRESSION: THE NECESSITY OF RESTORING LEGITIMACY IN FEDERAL ELECTIONS AND REVERSING DISILLUSIONMENT IN MINORITY COMMUNITIES
---article in JSTOR discusses examples of voter suppression and the use of Voting Rights Act to prosecute perpetrators
http://uar.sagepub.com.proxy.cc.uic.edu/content/37/6/780.full.pdf+html
-This article talks about the process of gentrification in the West Town neighborhood of Chicago from the 70s-through 00s or modern era. Redistricting of aldermanic zones was arguably a tool in order to create agreeable aldermen with corporate interests who were interested in high-end real estate development compared to those concerned about affordable housing, thus eliminating political power of of ethnically Mexican and Puerto Rican voters. Splitting up wards essentially to eliminate dissent and weaken minorities' political power. Still have to figure out who is in charge of ward splitting. City council? Mayor?
The Fragmented Politics of Urban Preservation by Yue Zhang - Chapter on Chicago

---Alderman receive about $2 million for “discrentionary projects” within their ward per year without city council approval

NAACP Legal Defense Fund: Defend Educate Empower website forma with good information about why there are protections in the Voting Rights Act
http://chicago.suntimes.com/news-chicago/7/71/316617/drawn-ward-fioretti-ready-step-take-lead-citywide
article
Ald Fioretti complained about remapping of wards in 2012 that changed his entire ward area

http://pols.uic.edu/docs/default-source/chicago_politics/city_council_voting_records/city-council-report-7-january-2015.pdf?sfvrsn=2
DIck Simpson recording how redistricting got passed and the results through City Council
http://www.examiner.com/article/chicago-aldermen-slip-ward-remap-past-voters
article talks about how quickly ward map passed city council , lack of oversight apparent




Wafeek Elafifi: How are different types of inequality related?

How do you guys think political and economic inequality are related? Do you believe that they even are? Are those that are in more of an advantaged position politically, using there power to become better off economically? Or do those with the superior economic resources using their powers to become more powerful politically? - Wafeek Elafifi

How economic inequality for minorities can result in political inequality?
This article in The Washington Post discusses how because minorities cannot donate as much money to political campaigns they become underrepresented
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/12/15/why-big-spending-on-political-campaigns-makes-racial-inequality-worse/

What is Political Inequality?

This is a great definintion of Political Inequality I think we can use in all of our papers
What is political Inequality

Interesting article on Gentrification

Gentrification Examples and effects


Alena Lulchak: Who does not vote and why?

  • I think this is a great article to show us some data on who runs for office. It's a short article, but it contains a graph that is easy to understand. Since these are the people who tend to have the most power, it's important to know who tries to be a part of them and who actually wins elections.
Motel, Seth. "Who Runs for Office? A Profile of the 2%." Pew Research Center RSS. N.p., 03 Sept. 2014. Web. 29 Jan. 2015. <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/09/03/who-runs-for-office-a-profile-of-the-2>.
  • Next stop to figuring out who runs for office, lets figure out who wins. This is the demographics of our current U.S Congress.
Bump, Philip. "The New Congress Is 80 Percent White, 80 Percent Male and 92 Percent Christian." The Washington Post. N.p., 5 Jan. 2015. Web. 27 Jan. 2015. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2015/01/05/the-new-congress-is-80-percent-white-80-percent-male-and-92-percent-christian/>.
  • Voter ID laws and Voter Fraud facts
Bump, Philip. "The Disconnect between Voter ID Laws and Voter Fraud."Washington Post. The Washington Post, 13 Oct. 2014. Web. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2014/10/13/the-disconnect-between-voter-id-laws-and-voter-fraud/>.
  • This looks at who shows up to the polls
Alvarez, Michael. "Why Don't People Vote." Psychology Today. N.p., 21 Dec. 2011. Web. <https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-psychology-behind-political-debate/201112/why-dont-people-vote>.
  • This provides date for minority and low-income citizens
Fulwood, Sam, III. "Why Young, Minority, and Low-Income Citizens Don't Vote." Center For American Progress. N.p., 6 Nov. 2012. Web. <https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/race/news/2014/11/06/100627/why-young-minority-and-low-income-citizens-dont-vote/>.
  • Young people trends on voting
K., D. "Why Young People Don't Vote." The Economist. The Economist Newspaper, 29 Oct. 2014. Web. <http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/10/economist-explains-24>.
  • This is a very good article on party partisanship and how it affects our congress. This is a long article but it is a very good read.
Bouie, Jamelle. "Why Our Democracy May Be Hardwired to Fail for a Generation." Slate. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/politics/2014/11/the_disunited_states_of_america_why_demographics_republican_obstructionism.single.html>.


Paul Conant: Economic Inequality and Political Representation

"The increasingly unequal distribution of income – and the even more unequal distribution of wealth – are problematic for a democratic system to the extent that economic inequality engenders political inequality."
https://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf

Empirical study of economic and political disparages.
http://www.jstor.org.proxy.cc.uic.edu/stable/pdfplus/25193796.pdf


Laith Dasoqi: Money as Speech, Spending Capacity, Campaign Finance

How does money impact political decisions?
"Senators need to raise $10,000 n average each week to fund their re-election" 1990
http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n2/money.html


Blumenthal, Paul. "McCutcheon v. FEC's Other Threat: Case Could Super-Size Joint Fundraising Committees." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 10 July 2013. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
"BUCKLEY v. VALEO." Buckley v. Valeo. Chicago Kent School of Law, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
"The Federal Election Campaign Laws:A Short History." Appendix 4: Brief History. Federal Election Commission, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.
Kelner, Robert K. "The Practical Consequences of McCutcheon." Harvard Law Review. Harvard Law School, 20 June 2014. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
"McCutcheon, Et Al. v. FEC." FEC.gov. Federal Election Commission, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
"Outside Spending." Opensecrets RSS. The Center for Responsive Politics, n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
Toobin, Jeffery. "Money Unlimited - The New Yorker." Newyorker.com. The New Yorker, 21 May 2012. Web. 30 Apr. 2015.
"What Is a PAC?" Opensecrets. Opensecrets, n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2015.


How do changes in campaign finance amplify problems with political inequality?
Citizens United
McCutcheon v FEC
http://www.cov.com/files/Publication/6b8155b9-1175-4780-b696-1723093f0758/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/f9e0e06f-35c2-4613-bd1d-17a8d4363225/How%20McCutcheon%20V.%20FEC%20Will%20Impact%20Election%20Cycles.pdf

Maria Estrada:

I'm posting two articles based on the discussion we had in class today in regards to redlining in Chicago. The first article lays out a basic outline of the origins or redlining within Chicago. Redlining began as far back as the 1930's. Red ling was supported by federal government in small ways like zoning restrictions and excluding certain building from being labeled as residential. Eminent Domain was used in most of all cases where red-lining is apparent and targets minority groups. This is the purposeful act of rezoning an area for with the specific purpose of discriminating against and excluding minority groups.

The second article carries on these same ideas and argues that re lining still exist today. It is done through foreclosure in minority areas as well as rezoning an area Home owners are now being pushed into more costly "substandard" housing options that essentially lead to foreclosure. This happens in minority areas of interest to developers who see an opportunity within these areas. The article even touches on housing discrimination and recent cases of this in places like New York. Though it is not in the article another good example of this would be little village.
Article 1:
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2014/11/theyre-still-redlining/
Article 2:
http://www.law.fsu.edu/journals/landuse/vol141/seit.htm
Article 3:
http://bowlingalone.com/


Bowling Alone is a really good book based on social issues that play into social capitalism. Its a really great read on the change of lifestyle of the American family. It's a good resource to look at when thinking about how campaigning influences voting . It's also a good way to determine how much time does the everyday citizen have to pay attention to their political environment.
Question :

How does political inequality play a role in social capitalism within areas of varying minority communities and, how does this affect the way minorities vote?


Runoff for mayor :

http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2015/02/24/mayoral-election-likely-headed-to-runoff-between-emanuel-garcia/





Kaitlin Krenning:

Unequal distributions of resources lead to political inequality

by: Lawrence Jacobs and Andrew Mellon


This source recognizes differences in resources such as income, that are unequally distributed in America and how it affects political participation, and favors specific groups more than others. This causes a huge problem for a democracy because it amounts to economic and political inequalities.

https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=h3zucjvIqbkC&oi=fnd&pg=PA167&dq=age+of+congressmen+and+political+inequality+in+america&ots=72GciRwHB1&sig=ceHpzWKcuO9L1-LKc0j0sZmdKQk#v=onepage&q=age%20of%20congressmen%20and%20political%20inequality%20in%20america&f=false

A Court for the One Percent: How the Supreme Court Contributes to Economic Inequality

by: Michele E. Gilman

This source recognizes certain patterns within the American political system, specifically the Supreme Court that lend to political inequalities. Some of these inequalities include systemic failures of our educational system, a flawed social safety net, pro-business policies at the expense of consumers and employees, and the growing influence of money in politics. This article explains how different economic inequalities influence our political behaviors, therefore lending to political inequality throughout the courts in America. The courts are favoring the majority because of money, at the expense of the minorities of America.

Gilman, Michele E., A Court for the Once Percent: How the Supreme Court Contributes to Economic Inequality (April 15, 2014). 2014 Utah L. Rev. 389 (2014). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2425296




Money and politics

US Supreme Court decisions on campaign finance
Should candidates for judgeships be allowed to personally solicit campaign contributions? The USSC will decide that this term.
Money as speech
Corporations as individual